To properly read and write to the memory bank, the clock input must be viewed as an analog input. There are three states the clock input can be in. The first state is ‘8’hex and higher. The second is from ‘1’hex through ‘7’hex. The third is at ‘0’hex. If there is no connection to the rear of the bank then the second and third state are equivalent. State 1 may be called ‘read’, state 2 called ‘write’ and the third may be just be called the ‘0’ state. Changes TO the ‘0’ state make no change in the bank, however they may be necessary for proper operation.

Most systems use binary (digital) signals to control memory access which have to be converted to the correct voltages. This article tells how to use another memory bank as a voltage converter. This may be done several ways depending on the system needs.

R/-W lineEdit

You can use the system R/-W signal alone as in this circuit. When the R/-W control is low, the output will be ‘4’. This puts it in the write state. When R/-W is high, the output will be ‘F’ to start a read. NOTE that this circuit is very limited and will likely never be used. There must be a write before any new location can be read and this make it very problematic.

Write Encoder 1

Program the first line with ‘40000000FFFFFFFF’. If you need to put it in the other address input, program that data down the first column instead, with the ‘4’ at the top.

Read and WriteEdit

This circuit shows the clock input as derived from separate read and write controls. These controls may be timed to the system clock or be asynchronous. The read or write will occur when the respective line goes high. This circuit assumes the read control takes precedence over the write control.

Write Encoder 3

Assuming the inputs are as shown, program the bank so line ‘F’hex is ‘4000000000000000’ to write and line ‘0’hex is ‘000000000000000F’ to read. If they are swapped, make row ‘F’hex as ‘F000000000000000’ to read and ‘0’ as ‘0000000000000004’ to write.

R/-W and ClockEdit

This circuit shows it tied to a clock. This could be the system clock, or another control signal to time the transitions, as required by the design. Both reads and writes are timed to the rising edge of this clock. The bank’s clock input always goes to ‘0’ when the external clock is low and does not have the problems of the first circuit. This is the most common situation found in processor designs.

Write Encoder 2

The bank is programmed in row ‘F’hex with ‘400000000000000F’. If the inputs need to be swapped, simply put that data down the first column, with the ‘4’ at the top.

Related PagesEdit

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